Explore the works of ten ground-breaking photographers who documented—and influenced—the course of history around the world.

In recent years, we’ve seen photography change the world in real-time. Pictures of refugees in Europe, children separated from their parents at the US border, and protesters around the world have spread their struggles with the click of a button. In turn, those images have changed hearts and minds, inspiring concrete action, from donations to nonprofits to record voter turnouts.

Today, it’s easy to take the power of images for granted, but photographers have been pioneers since the invention of the camera. They’ve been scientists, artists, activists, and reformers. Before the days of the internet, many of them fought to get their pictures in the pages of leading magazines. They launched exhibitions, wrote essays, and published books. Here’s a look at just ten photographers who not only documented history, but helped shape it as well.

1. Nicéphore Niépce (1765-1833)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Joseph-Nicephore Niepce De Saint-Victor
Joseph-Nicephore Niepce De Saint-Victor. French pioneer of photography who more than anyone deserves to be regarded as the first true photographer. 1765 – 1833. Photo by Historia/Shutterstock.

In 1826, this French inventor set up a camera obscura to capture the view outside his window. Today, the resulting image, “​Window at Le Gras,” is known as the first recorded photograph.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Joseph-Nicephore Niepce
Joseph-Nicephore Niepce. French physicist credited with making the world’s first photograph (1826). 1765 – 1833. Photo by Historia/Shutterstock.

Initially, Niépce had trouble convincing his contemporaries at the Royal Society of London of the importance of his discovery. But he had a breakthrough in 1829 when he agreed to partner with Louis Daguerre, whose knowledge, skill, and ingenuity made photography easier and more accessible to the masses. Niépce passed away in 1833, without having the chance to witness the true magnitude of his invention.

For decades, the whereabouts of “​Window at Le Gras”​ were unknown, until, in 1952, the historian and collector Helmut Gernsheim discovered it in storage. He later donated it to the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas at Austin, where it remains today.

2. Frances Benjamin Johnston (1864-1952)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Frances Benjamin Johnston
Frances Benjamin Johnston (1854-1951), was one of the first American women to achieve prominence as a photographer. 1925. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

When Johnston opened the doors to her Washington, D.C. studio in 1894, she was the only female photographer in the city. It was the same year the writer Sarah Grand coined the term “new woman,” and in many ways, the photographer came to embody this idea of an ambitious, independent, and career-minded woman.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Frances Benjamin Johnston and Friends
Frances Benjamin Johnston (1854-1951), self-portrait dressed as a man with false mustache, with other two women, one of whom is also dressed as a man. Ca. 1890. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

Three years later, she penned ​”What a Woman Can Do With a Camera,” an influential article that appeared in ​Ladies’ Home Journal. Here, she advocated for the role of women in the industry and stressed the importance of earning a living as a modern woman. “Good work should command good prices,” she advised. “The wise woman will place a paying value upon her best efforts.”

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Portrait of Susan B. Anthony
Suffragist Susan B. Anthony. Photo by Universal History Archive/Shutterstock.

In addition to her portraits of presidents, diplomats, and social reformers (including Susan B. Anthony), Johnston left behind a vast body of documentary and architectural work. She’s now remembered as a pioneer in the field, and beyond that, a champion for women in business.

3. Dorothea Lange (1895-1965)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Dorothea Lange
Dorothea Lange, Resettlement Administration photographer. California, February, 1936. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

From 1935-1939, this photographer worked for the Resettlement Administration, later called the Farm Security Administration. She and her colleagues traveled the country, bringing to light the traumas of poverty in rural America during the Great Depression. During her time in Nipomo, California, she created “​Migrant Mother,” a portrait of a woman named Florence Owens Thompson.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Migrant Mother
“Migrant Mother,” portrait of Florence Owens Thompson and children. By Dorothea Lange for the Farm Security Administration, Nipomo, California, 1936. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

The image prompted authorities to send 20,000 pounds of food to the encampment where Lange had photographed the 32-year-old mother and her children. Beyond that, it gave the public an intimate look at the realities of life for sharecroppers, migrant workers, and displaced people throughout the United States. Today, it is one of the most recognizable of the 160,000 historic FSA photographs.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Mochida Family
Japanese-American Mochida family wear identification tags while awaiting evacuation bus. They will be sent to a remote internment camp for the duration of World War II. May 8, 1942 photo by Dorothea Lange. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

In the 1940s, Lange went on to document the internment of Japanese American families during the Second World War. The government restricted her coverage, and the Army initially impounded hundreds of her photographs; however, they resurfaced decades later, serving as an enduring reminder of an injustice some would like to forget.

4. Ansel Adams (1902-1984)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Ansel Adams
Ansel Adams, circa 1940s. Courtesy: CSU Archives/Everett Collection. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

This landscape photographer felt most at home in the rugged terrain of the Sierra Nevada, and his images proved instrumental in conserving the wilderness of the American West. Although he often worked eighteen-hour days, Adams devoted much of his energy to the protection of national parks, including his beloved Yosemite, where he’d first tested an old Kodak Brownie at the age of fourteen. He also campaigned for and contributed to the formation of new parks, like Kings Canyon National Park.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Evening, McDonald Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana
“Evening, McDonald Lake, Glacier National Park, Montana.” About 1941. Photo By Ansel Adams. Photo by Nara Archives/Shutterstock.

As part of the Sierra Club, Adams spoke out on behalf of endangered animals and threatened land, while his photographs captured the beauty and spiritual significance of nature in a way that could never be expressed in words alone. In 1980, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom for his role in defending the country’s wilderness areas. Today, the photographs he left behind serve as a powerful reminder of the importance of preserving this heritage.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — The Tetons and Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming
“The Tetons and Snake River, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming.” About 1941. Photo By Ansel Adams. Photo by Nara Archives/Shutterstock.

5. Walker Evans (1903–1975)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Walker Evans
Walker Evans (1903-1975), profile, hand up to face. American photographer, photograph by Edwin Locke, February, 1937. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

Like Lange, this photographer played an invaluable role in covering the Great Depression for the RA/FSA. In 1936, the same year Lange photographed Thompson, Evans took a break from the Administration to join the writer James Agee in chronicling the lives of three tenant families in Alabama. Together, they published the seminal book ​Let Us Now Praise Famous Men in 1941.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Floyd Burroughs, Alabama sharecropper, on his porch with neighbor's children
“Floyd Burroughs, Alabama sharecropper, on his porch with neighbor’s children.” 1936. By Walker Evans. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

During a time of upheaval and loss, Evans shared the stories of people who had been largely overlooked and forgotten. ​Walker Evans: American Photographs, published as a monograph and exhibited at MoMA in 1938, proved to be one of the most influential works of the century.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Waterfront in New Orleans. French market sidewalk scene. Louisiana
“Waterfront in New Orleans. French market sidewalk scene. Louisiana.” Photograph by Walker Evans, December, 1935. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

At around the same time, Evans turned his attention to the New York subway system, using a Contax camera discreetly tucked beneath his winter coat to capture poetic vignettes of ordinary Americans as they went about their days. His legacy would later influence countless American documentary photographers, including Robert Frank and Diane Arbus.

6. Margaret Bourke-White (1904-1971)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Photographer Margaret Bourke-White
EV1841. Photographer Margaret Bourke-White. August 24, 1934. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

In 1936, this photographer documented construction on the ​Fort Peck Dam​ in Montana for the debut issue of ​Life​ magazine. In the following years, she’d ring in several other “firsts” in the industry: she was the first female war correspondent to be accredited by the U.S. armed forces and the first foreign photographer allowed unlimited access to the Soviet Union.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Bourke-White Sails to Europe
Margaret Bourke-White sails from New York City aboard the S.S. Washington to Europe to take World War II pictures. Photo by AP/Shutterstock.

Bourke-White captured the horrors of war and conflict throughout Europe, starting with the invasion of Moscow in 1941 and ending with the liberation of concentration camps in 1945. She famously photographed ​Mohandas Gandhi​ at his spinning wheel, capturing his fortitude without speaking a word to him, as he was observing a day of silence.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Maggie the Indestructible
Margaret Bourke-White, 1933. Courtesy: CSU Archives/Everett Collection. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

Even after she developed Parkinson’s Disease, Bourke-White persisted with her work, documenting the Korean War, and later, publishing her autobiography ​Portrait of Myself. Perhaps she’s best described by the nickname she developed in her time at ​Life: “Maggie the Indestructible.”

7. Yousuf Karsh (1908-2002)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Yousuf Karsh
Mr. Yousuf Karsh. Famous photographer. Photo by ANL/Shutterstock.

This Armenian-Candian photographer helped shape our memory of the Second World War through his timeless portraits of world leaders. Among Karsh’s most famous works is a 1941 portrait of ​Winston Churchill​.

According to legend, he was permitted to take just one picture, and he got the shot after boldly plucking a cigar from the Prime Minister’s mouth. The move resulted in an unforgettable expression on Churchill’s face, and after all was said and done, the Prime Minister smiled, shook the photographer’s hand and said, “You can even make a roaring lion stand still to be photographed.” At that pivotal moment, the portrait became a symbol of Britain’s willpower in the fight against Hitler.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Yousef Karsh Inspects His work
Yousef Karsh, famous photographer, studying one of his photos. 2/22/49. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

In addition, Karsh also photographed artists, scientists, and writers whose work defined the 20th century, including Ernest Hemingway, Albert Einstein, and Georgia O’Keefe. In all, he photographed twenty covers of ​Life. His final portrait was of then-President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary. When asked in 1982 why he photographed so many prominent leaders and thinkers, Karsh ​laughed​: “I do it for my own immortality.”

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Yousef Karsh in London
Yousuf Karsh in London. Karsh (death 7/02) was one of the most famous and accomplished portrait photographers of all time. Photo by Steve Bent/ANL/Shutterstock.

8. Gordon Parks (1912-2006)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Gordon Parks
Gordon Parks (1912-1906) as a young photographer in the offices of the Farm Security Administration (FSA) after he won a fellowship to photograph for the FSA. He would become one of the most renowned photojournalists of the 20th century. 1943. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

This prolific photojournalist’s career intersects with a few others on this list, as he too worked for both the FSA and ​Life​ (he was the magazine’s first African American staff photographer). He also created some of the most powerful photographs from the Civil Rights Movement.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Ella Watson
Ella Watson, a cleaning women in the offices of the Farm Security Administration (FSA) during the Franklin Roosevelt’s Presidency. This photo was taken in the same shoot as Gordon Parks iconic photo, “American Gothic.” Aug. 1942. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

In addition to creating intimate and powerful portraits of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X, he ventured into the Jim Crow South in the 1950s, where he exposed the violent and painful realities of segregation. In ​American Gothic, he famously photographed an African American woman named Ella Watson, who worked at the FSA building in 1942.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Ella Watson and Family
Dinner time at the home of Mrs. Ella Watson, a government charwoman. She feeds the youngest of her three grandchildren in their Washington D.C. apartment. Her adopted daughter is seen in the mirror. Aug. 1940 photo by Gordon Parks. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

Parks’s legacy is defined in part by his steadfast commitment to the truth. In 1961, for example, his editors at ​Life​ threatened cut portions of his ​photo essay​ about a family living in the Catacumba favela in Rio de Janeiro, fearing it was “too depressing” for the public. In response, Parks drafted up a resignation letter, pressuring the magazine to publish the story as he intended. His photographs changed the lives of that Brazilian family—just one month later, readers of the magazine had donated $30,000 to help.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — The Weapons of Gordon Parks
Gordon Parks Jr., African American master photographer in 1968. Photo was taken during the creation of a CBS Television presentation, hosted by Harry Reasoner, The Weapons of Gordon Parks. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

Parks believed in the power of the camera to inspire empathy and bring about a future without hatred. “There is something about both of us that goes deeper than blood or black and white,” he wrote for ​Life​ in 1967. “It is our common search for a better life, a better world.”

9. Robert Capa (1913-1954)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Robert Capa
Robert Capa, in France while on assignment photographing for Life Magazine in World War II France. Mont Bocard, France. July 30, 1944. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

In total, this Hungarian-born photojournalist documented five wars. In 1936, as Evans and Lange were covering the US, Capa was on the battlefield of the Spanish Civil War. It was here that he created ​The Falling Soldier; he would later recall the experience of being the trenches as he lifted his camera over his head and pressed the button.

With that single gesture, Capa captured the exact moment a loyalist soldier was hit by a bullet and killed. This was the same war in which the photographer Gerda Taro, Capa’s partner, companion, and lover, died—an event that marked him forever.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Capa and Hemingway
Robert Capa (left) and Ernest Hemingway (right) with their driver U.S. Army driver. They are waiting to follow an American armored unit into action near Mont Bocard, France. July 30, 1944. Photo by Everett/Shutterstock.

In 1937, Capa met the journalist and writer Ernest Hemingway, and the pair became friends.

Capa was embedded with US troops during the Second World War, and in June of 1944, he landed on Omaha Beach during the ​Allied invasion​. He spent ninety minutes on the ground, as “bullets tore into the water around [him].” Eleven of his photographs from that day survived.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Capo Receiving the Medal of Freedom
General Dwight D. Eisenhower, left, presents the Medal of Freedom to Robert Capa, a Life Magazine photographer, for war correspondence in the European Theater, in Washington D.C. Photo by Byron Rollins/AP/Shutterstock.

The photographer became an American citizen in 1946, and he won the Medal of Freedom in 1947. Seven years later, he was killed by a landmine while covering the Indochina War. At the age of forty, he was the first American correspondent to lose his life to the conflict. Today, his memory, and his photographs, stand as a testament to the true cost of war.

10. Sam Nzima (1934-2018)

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Sam Nzima
South African photographer, Sam Nzima, poses with his iconic photo showing 13-year-old Hector Pieterson being carried after being shot by police during the 1976 Soweto uprising. The day was a key moment in the long campaign to end South Africa’s harsh apartheid system of white-minority rule. Forty years ago, black students in Johannesburg’s Soweto township marched in protest and some were gunned down by police, appalling the world. Photo by Denis Farrell/AP/Shutterstock.

This South African photojournalist got his start working for ​The World, a daily newspaper based out of Johannesburg, in 1968. Nine years later, his coverage of the Soweto uprising would be seen around the world.

On the morning of June 16th, 1976, some 20,000 black students took part in a protest against mandatory Afrikaans-language instruction in their schools. Clashes with police took a deadly turn as officers began shooting.

It was then that Nzima saw high school student Mbuyisa Makhubu running in terror. In his arms was the body of 13-year-old Hector Pieterson, who had been shot and killed. By his side was Hector’s older sister Antoinette Sithole. “It was a very high risk because this picture was taken under a shower of bullets,” Nzima would remember decades later. It was also against the law to photograph what the police were doing, so he hid the film in his sock so it wouldn’t be found.

Nzima’s photograph, titled ​Soweto Uprising, laid bare the devastating consequences of apartheid. The photographer received death threats in the wake of its publication, and the picture was banned in South Africa.

10 Master Photographers Who Made History Possible — Sam Nzima's Farewell
South African police pallbearers carry a coffin of photographer Sam Nzima during his funeral at Lillydale, Bushbuckridge in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Photo by Themba Hadebe/AP/Shutterstock.

The regime placed Nzima on house arrest, but in the end, he prevailed. Because of his courage, the world no longer turned a blind eye to racial injustice in South Africa, and a sea change was set in motion. The photographer passed away last year at the age of 83.


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